Restless bandits are a class of sequential resource allocation problems concerned with allocating one or more resources among several alternative processes where the evolution of the process depends on the resource allocated to them. Such models capture the fundamental trade-offs between exploration and exploitation. In 1988, Whittle developed an index heuristic for restless bandit problems which has emerged as a popular solution approach due to its simplicity and strong empirical performance. The Whittle index heuristic is applicable if the model satisfies a technical condition known as indexability. In this paper, we present two general sufficient conditions for indexability and identify simpler to verify refinements of these conditions. We then present a general algorithm to compute Whittle index for indexable restless bandits. Finally, we present a detailed numerical study which affirms the strong performance of the Whittle index heuristic.
Published June 2020 , 21 pages