In this paper, we evaluate the synergy between variable renewable energy (VRE), electric mobility, and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) deployment for a small community transitioning to a low-carbon economy. We propose an integrated deterministic modeling approach that accurately describes electric mobility activity within the electric grid in the ETEM-SG long-term capacity expansion model. This approach allowed us to keep the entire approach in the linear programming domain. We then perform a scenario analysis on the Isle of Pines case. The results show that V2G is essential for electric vehicles to make a positive contribution to the electric system by providing a supply-demand balance service. The deployment of electric vehicles allows reaching a VRE penetration rate of up to 94%, at no additional cost compared to a solution without electric vehicles, and even with a global-cost reduction of up to 5.3% thanks to a decrease of the capacity of stationary battery packs needed for storage.
Published February 2023 , 19 pages
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