The accessibility and cost reduction of renewable energy sources are stimulating the emergence of small-scale residential prosumers who can produce and consume electricity. The integration of high number of small-scale prosumers in a large electricity grid under various operational uncertainties is an important challenge. Its success relies on the energy policy for each given jurisdiction, and possible policies can be tested for suitability prior to their real-life implementation. We provide an overview of computational framework that uses an agent-based approach to address this issue. Agent-based modelling approach makes it possible to represent an electricity system composed of heterogeneous smart stakeholders (prosumers, aggregators or distribution companies and grid operator). The decision-making model is key for agents' intelligence. While the decision-making behaviour of some agents can be formulated as a single-objective optimization model (e.g., minimizing the expenses for energy procurement), the behaviour of other agents appears to be more complex. The actions of the grid operator may depend on individual decisions of small-scale prosumers who have negligible individual impact but collectively may create a stable mass effect (e.g., ramp effect).
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