Traditionally, the design of supply chains for humanitarian operations has been developed distinctly for the different disaster management phases, with little attention to relief to development continuum. For the immediate response phase, this design has an emphasis on speed, whereas for the reconstruction phase, it has an emphasis on cost-reduction. In this paper, we develop a sustainable humanitarian supply chain network for the relief to development continuum. Hence, this network ensures an effective and smooth transition from response to reconstruction operations. We develop three network structures which integrate the lean and agile principles at a different extent. To determine the best characteristics of such a sustainable supply chain, we use discrete event simulation (DES) modeling. We validate and compare each network structure through several scenarios fed by data sets available from the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) for operations conducted in the Republic of Congo (RoC).
Published April 2020 , 16 pages