(a) Subtitle: Data Envelopment Analysis for Environmental Assessment: Comparison between Public and Private Ownership in Petroleum Industry
Abstract: Environmental assessment recently becomes a major policy issue in the world. This study discusses how to apply Data Environment Analysis (DEA) for environmental assessment. An important feature of the DEA environmental assessment is that it needs to classify outputs into desirable (good) and undesirable (bad) outputs because private and public entities often produce not only desirable outputs but also undesirable outputs as a result of their production activities. This study proposes the three types of unification for DEA environmental assessment by using non-radial DEA models. The first unification considers both an increase and a decrease in the input vector along with a decrease in the direction vector of undesirable outputs. This type of unification measures "unified efficiency". The second unification considers a decrease in an input vector along with a decrease in the vector of undesirable outputs. This type of unification is referred to as "natural disposability" and measures "unified efficiency under natural disposability". The third unification considers an increase in an input vector but a decrease in the vector of undesirable outputs. This type of unification is referred to as "managerial disposability" and measures "unified efficiency under managerial disposability". All the unifications increase the vector of desirable outputs. To document their practical implications, this study has applied the proposed approach to compare the performance of national oil firms with that of international oil firms. This study identifies two important findings on the petroleum industry. One of the two findings is that national oil companies under public ownership outperform international oil companies under private ownership in terms of unified (operational and environmental) efficiency and unified efficiency under natural disposability. However, the performance of international oil companies exhibits an increasing trend in unified efficiency. The other finding is that national oil companies need to satisfy the environmental standard of its own country while international oil companies need to satisfy the international standard that is more restricted than the national standards. As a consequence, international oil companies outperform national oil companies in terms of unified efficiency under managerial disposability.
(b) Subtitle: Investment Strategy for Sustainable Society by Development of Regional Economies and Prevention of Industrial Pollutions in Japanese Manufacturing Sectors
Abstract: A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities currently locate at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This empirical study confirms that the proposed approach is useful in both guiding regional planning and developing a sustainable society. It is easily envisioned that the proposed approach is useful for not only Japan but also the other industrial and developing nations.