Artelys has recently led a cost-opportunity study of storage for France, funded by the French Ministry of Industry, the French Ministry of Environment and ATEE (a consortium of the largest French utilities and energy related companies). It has been presented to the French Minister of Industry in November 2013.
I will first review the challenges posed by intermittent generation (wind, solar) and the solutions we have in hands, namely flexible generation, smart-grids and storage. I will then describe the hourly supply-demand equilibrium calculations we did for the French context using the Artelys Crystal software. This led us to find optimal trade-offs between the different services provided by storage while respecting technical and operational constraints. I will finally discuss the most promising technologies according to the study and discuss what aspects of the study are or are not specific to the French context.